Sunday, May 24, 2020

Comparison of Memory Management Systems of Bsd, Windows,...

Comparison of Memory Management Systems of BSD, Windows, and Linux Gaurang Khetan Graduate Student, Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. gkhetan@usc.edu December 16, 2002 Abstract This paper is a study of memory management systems of an operating system. We begin with a brief introduction to memory management systems and then we compare the memory management systems of reallife operating systems - BSD4.4, Windows 2000 and Linux 2.4 1 Introduction based on it. Moreover, it is very well documented in [12]. Windows 2000 was chosen since it is a very popular operating system for use as a desktop especially with beginners, and has now evolved into a mature operating system. Linux [4]†¦show more content†¦Coffman and Denning [2] characterize paging systems by three important policies: 1. When the system loads pages into memory - the fetch policy. 2. Where the system places pages into memory the placement policy 3. How the system selects pages to be removed from main memory when pages are unavailable for a placement request - the page replacement policy. The placement policy is of importance only for optimizing certain behavior [16]. So, practically, the behavior of a paging system is dependent only on the fetch and placement policy. In most modern systems, for the fetch policy a demand paging system is used in which the system brings a page to memory only when it is required, however sometimes prepaging certain pages that are expected to be required. With regard to the page replacement policy, many algorithms have been developed over the years. An account can be found in [19]. Comparisons of performance of page replacement algorithms can be found in many papers, such as [15]. Instead of describing each of the system’s MM system in detail, which will be a very long exercise, we compare here some of their signiï ¬ cant parts. All the three systems have modern MM systems, and have surprisingly a lot in common. The data structures are quite similar, and the features of each are also quite similar. Some similarities of these systems areShow MoreRelatedA Short Note On Linux, Windows And Freebsd1775 Words   |  8 PagesI/O Comparison between Linux, Windows and FreeBSD Name University Executive Summary This study compares the I/O functionalities such as data structures, algorithms and cryptograpy between Linux, Windows, and FreeBSD. Most importantly, the data structures used in block and character devices for Windows and FreeBSD are also compared against those of Linux operating system. With respect to I/O operations, this study specifically examines the different types of devices, I/O scheduling, and so forthRead MoreWhat Is A Operating System?749 Words   |  3 PagesWhat is a operating system? An  operating system  is the most essential software that is placed in a computer. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender Inequality And Racial Prejudice - 1130 Words

Gender inequality and racial prejudice are alive and well in the United States and around the world despite the strides that have been made here over the past fifty years. Over time fixed notions about gender differences have been interwoven into the fabric of society, each leading to complex interactions among people. Traditionally, most of these rigid views have supported the dominance of men and the subservience of women in most social structures. In her article entitled: Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color, Kimberle Williams Crenshaw introduced the term â€Å"Intersectionality.† Intersectionality is the theory that different types of discriminations interact with one another. This notion goes hand in hand with Judith Butler’s ideas described her article titled â€Å"Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory† which uses the term â€Å"gender acts† and deciphers a probable cause of various discriminatory practices encountered in contemporary society. Since both gender inequality and racial inequality share a common thread, I believe that what intersectionality represents will help understand Judith Butler’s view on gender classification and the dynamic it has caused on our social and political formation. If intersectionality is a theoretical framework explaining discrimination, Butler would highlight that gender classification is implicit in it, by explaining that the termShow MoreRelatedRace Relations And Social Inequality1610 Words   |  7 Pagesdiscuss social inequality related to race relations. By comparing two articles â€Å"Ethno-Racial Attitudes and Social Inequality† and â€Å"What happens before? 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Characterization In Poe, Hawthorne, And Melville Essay Example For Students

Characterization In Poe, Hawthorne, And Melville Essay What makes a story different from a tale lies in the author’s choice of characterization. When we have little physical detail about the character as is Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† and Poe’s â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† the story becomes more of a tale. In a tale, it is possible to remove almost all of the physical detail about the character and still achieve the same effect. If you remove the known detail, what little there is, in â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† it might have the same effect as, â€Å"A man walked into the woods†¦..† This however cannot be achieved in Herman Melville’s â€Å"Bartleby The Scribner†. If you remove the detail about the life of the narrator then you remove the essence of the story in itself. In â€Å"Bartleby The Scribner†, we are given enough detail about the characters that we are able to answer why a character thinks a certain way. It is only through the details about the narrator’s business and the people that work for him that we can understand why Bartleby’s behavior is so perplexing. The details show how ordinary, or plain the narrator’s life is until Bartleby arrives and seems to change everything. The characters almost become real. In â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† we cannot attempt to understand why Montresor seeks revenge so badly, we are just told that he does. If the reader were given more insight into the relationship between Fortunato and Montresor then we might be able to understand why he seeks revenge. Any physical detail given to us only serves what Poe calls â€Å"the single effect†. We are told that Fortunato is wearing a jester’s hat to point out that he is a fool, adding to the humiliation to follow. The fact that he is wearing the hat, however, does not give the reader any insight to his psychology. Thus the characters become abstractions that exist only in our minds. They do not have real life counterparts. By placing more emphasis on plot than characterization, Poe and Hawthorne were able to create a tale in which the characters only exist in the readers mind and the story becomes more of a tale. However, Melville was able to create characters that seem to escape the readers mind and the plot is moved forward through examination of these characters. English Essays

Friday, April 3, 2020

Capitalistic Government Of US Essays - Capitalism,

Capitalistic Government Of US "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness -- That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness." (Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence) When Thomas Jefferson wrote these words, he wrote them with the intent of establishing a new government that would not give anyone favoritism over others. After 224 years, this idea is still believed in by the citizens of America, but not practiced by their government. As the years passed, the values of America have slowly altered to materialism. The people trusted our government to make the best decisions for the entire country, but some decisions seem to favor the wealthiest citizens rather than all of the citizens. Not to say that the government is completely corrupt, but their priorities seem to have a monetary value, and they must pay for it some how. As a country with a capitalist government, one that has the main focus of making profit through free markets, money has an unfortunately big influence on policies that are made by the government. According to the public, which was based on middle-class adults in the US, business editors and college students, the general consensus came out to be that they believed that "capitalism must be altered before any significant improvements in human welfare can be realized." This can be seen throughout history in the positions taken by the government about free markets, unionization, and . The United States of America's government is hyper-capitalistic, because the markets are freer than in any other country. We consume more and are more dependent on working. The markets in the US have not always been so free. In the beginning we had small markets that people did not depend so much on because of the fact that they were all farmers and sharecroppers. The existence of slavery was in very recent in history back then. America was not considered a capitalistic country, but instead a feudal one because everyone traded and didn't expect monetary compensation for their products. When the goal of production (around the end of the 19th century) changed from being used for exchange to profit, the US began to become capitalistic. To establish a definition of capitalism, I shall establish it as when goods are produced to be sold; the revenues made are then used to be what you need with intent to make a profit in the end. Our capitalistic ways are effective in the US government because it small enough to allow the businesses to make their own decisions. As the US became industrialized, the need to mass-produce came into effect, and the boom in the labor market began. The problem with this is that the freedom of the markets allowed the businesses to move around as they liked; only when they were knowingly signing a contract were they forced to make a commitment. Markets dispersed power that kept the government from being able to say anything to the businesses that were making the most money in the market. The government decided to not involve itself when it came to the market, even though they knew that the bigger companies were overtaking the smaller ones. The wealthiest owners had the power in the markets and this allowed them to have more say as to what goes on in the free market. The government could intervene in this situation, but they do not because it would be too risky for them to put restrictions on the companies that right now have the power in the business world. The free market of America is one that claims that everyone is free to gain power, but what happens when business owners decide to be a monopoly? Competition is good, but there are competitors that are so powerful that they are willing to crush any smaller competition. The government's role in this situation can be seen as unfavorable for the smaller businesses and favorable to the wealthier businesses. The government chose to minimally involve itself in this situation under Capitalistic Government Of US Essays - Capitalism, Capitalistic Government Of US "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness -- That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness." (Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence) When Thomas Jefferson wrote these words, he wrote them with the intent of establishing a new government that would not give anyone favoritism over others. After 224 years, this idea is still believed in by the citizens of America, but not practiced by their government. As the years passed, the values of America have slowly altered to materialism. The people trusted our government to make the best decisions for the entire country, but some decisions seem to favor the wealthiest citizens rather than all of the citizens. Not to say that the government is completely corrupt, but their priorities seem to have a monetary value, and they must pay for it some how. As a country with a capitalist government, one that has the main focus of making profit through free markets, money has an unfortunately big influence on policies that are made by the government. According to the public, which was based on middle-class adults in the US, business editors and college students, the general consensus came out to be that they believed that "capitalism must be altered before any significant improvements in human welfare can be realized." This can be seen throughout history in the positions taken by the government about free markets, unionization, and . The United States of America's government is hyper-capitalistic, because the markets are freer than in any other country. We consume more and are more dependent on working. The markets in the US have not always been so free. In the beginning we had small markets that people did not depend so much on because of the fact that they were all farmers and sharecroppers. The existence of slavery was in very recent in history back then. America was not considered a capitalistic country, but instead a feudal one because everyone traded and didn't expect monetary compensation for their products. When the goal of production (around the end of the 19th century) changed from being used for exchange to profit, the US began to become capitalistic. To establish a definition of capitalism, I shall establish it as when goods are produced to be sold; the revenues made are then used to be what you need with intent to make a profit in the end. Our capitalistic ways are effective in the US government because it small enough to allow the businesses to make their own decisions. As the US became industrialized, the need to mass-produce came into effect, and the boom in the labor market began. The problem with this is that the freedom of the markets allowed the businesses to move around as they liked; only when they were knowingly signing a contract were they forced to make a commitment. Markets dispersed power that kept the government from being able to say anything to the businesses that were making the most money in the market. The government decided to not involve itself when it came to the market, even though they knew that the bigger companies were overtaking the smaller ones. The wealthiest owners had the power in the markets and this allowed them to have more say as to what goes on in the free market. The government could intervene in this situation, but they do not because it would be too risky for them to put restrictions on the companies that right now have the power in the business world. The free market of America is one that claims that everyone is free to gain power, but what happens when business owners decide to be a monopoly? Competition is good, but there are competitors that are so powerful that they are willing to crush any smaller competition. The government's role in this situation can be seen as unfavorable for the smaller businesses and favorable to the wealthier businesses. The government chose to minimally involve itself in this situation under

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on Performance Report

PREFACE Chart a course for every endeavor that we take the people’s money for, see how well we are progressing, tell the public how we are doing, stop the things that don’t work, and never stop improving the things that we think are worth investing in.† President William J. Clinton, on signing the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 Today when we talk about customer satisfaction and quality, we talk not only about the quality of products and services that totally satisfy customer needs and expectations in every respect on a continuous basis but we also talk about the quality of processes, information, people, systems and objectives. In short, quality is all encompassing is the way of life. The greatest realization in the pursuit of quality is that all this can happen only if people have a shared vision for the company and are totally committed to giving their best. For people to cause change in technology and systems they need to demonstrate behavior, which fosters teamwork based on the values of self-discipline, patience, openness, respect and trust. Till recently, performance appraisal was seen as a prerogative of the manager, who used to write a report about his subordinates. In fact, even today performance appraisal is known as a â€Å"Confidential report† in government parlance. Times are changing. With the advent of liberalization, employees have much more employment opportunities and hence can be no more treated as commodities. Employees have a right to know how they are performing. They also have a right to conduct self-appraisal and discuss the same with their superiors. Performance management and appraisal is no more linked only to wage and salary revisions, or promotions, but concentrated more on identifying needs for employment development. This project was taken up specifically to stress the need of planning, developing and implementing a performance management and appraisal system, wh... Free Essays on Performance Report Free Essays on Performance Report PREFACE Chart a course for every endeavor that we take the people’s money for, see how well we are progressing, tell the public how we are doing, stop the things that don’t work, and never stop improving the things that we think are worth investing in.† President William J. Clinton, on signing the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 Today when we talk about customer satisfaction and quality, we talk not only about the quality of products and services that totally satisfy customer needs and expectations in every respect on a continuous basis but we also talk about the quality of processes, information, people, systems and objectives. In short, quality is all encompassing is the way of life. The greatest realization in the pursuit of quality is that all this can happen only if people have a shared vision for the company and are totally committed to giving their best. For people to cause change in technology and systems they need to demonstrate behavior, which fosters teamwork based on the values of self-discipline, patience, openness, respect and trust. Till recently, performance appraisal was seen as a prerogative of the manager, who used to write a report about his subordinates. In fact, even today performance appraisal is known as a â€Å"Confidential report† in government parlance. Times are changing. With the advent of liberalization, employees have much more employment opportunities and hence can be no more treated as commodities. Employees have a right to know how they are performing. They also have a right to conduct self-appraisal and discuss the same with their superiors. Performance management and appraisal is no more linked only to wage and salary revisions, or promotions, but concentrated more on identifying needs for employment development. This project was taken up specifically to stress the need of planning, developing and implementing a performance management and appraisal system, wh...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Health and Safety Legislation Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Health and Safety Legislation - Assignment Example The bottom-line of the regulation actions is that safety is important, and the reduction of accidents is needed to make working conditions favorable. Strategic drivers in health and safety regulation in Britain can be viewed from two perspectives. That is from the business perspective and the regulators perspective. It has to be noted beforehand that the regulating authority in charge of managing health and safety regulation in the Great Britain is the health and safety executive. The role of this organization is to engage all stakeholders in promoting safe and healthy work place environments in Britain. Therefore in discussing the strategic drivers from the regulators perspective, much attention will be focused on the methods and actions taken by health and safety executive and its functions. From the perspective of the businesses, the main strategic drivers to regulation of health and safety are social responsibility, reputation, impact on revenue and the ability of such businesses to comply with the regulation. Each of these drivers is of significant influence to the ability and level of compliance to the regulations that concern health and safety at work. Considering social responsibility as a driver, the argument, in this case, is that the business owes a level of responsibility to the people and community within which it is established. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the business to provide a safe environment both within and without the firm. The community, in this case, does not mean just the surrounding but even the members of the organization. This perspective is similar to the concept of corporate social responsibility. In corporate social responsibility, the businesses moral obligation is to give back to the society that it owes its existence to. The point of divergence of the two cases is that beneficiary of the good gesture from the business. Social responsibility can also be